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In Two Volumes. With an English translation by Carleton L. With an English translation by P. With glosssary by H. Seventy years of singing on record to by Steane, J. B Jeanne d'Arc by Scott, W. The story of H. With an English translation by Kirsopp Lake. With hints to Gentlemen on the art of fascinating. Secretary Peter Forgets. D Commander of the Mists by Murray, D. The Chain of Disaster.

With an English translation by J. Translated from the Italian by J. Eaton, revised with additional chapters by R. Text by Mr. Being experiences of life in Persia from to by Wills, C. J All the Way to Barcelona.

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Introduction by A. Chisholm by Banfield, E. How to Make It. Milne Writing Aloud by Beresford, J. With an English translation by G. Stewart, Douglas St. Basil Plato Vol. The wall repels an uninvited comer; the gate holds him fast if he ventures to lay hands on it; of the two wolf-dogs one is always watching while the other sleeps, and no one can pass them without permission.

Svipdag asks if it is not, after all, possible to get past the watching dogs. There must be something in the world delicate enough to satisfy their appetite and thus turn away their attention. He who can procure these can steal past the dogs. But the cock Vidofner sits high in the top of the world-tree and seems to be inaccessible.

Is there, then, asks Svipdag, any weapon that can bring him down dead? It was made outside of Na-gate nagrindr. The smith was one Loptr. It must have been most difficult and dangerous to go to the place where Sinmara has her abode and try to secure the weapon so well kept. Svipdag asks if anyone who is willing to attempt it has any hope of returning. If one can secure this, bring it to Ludr the place of the lower-world mill , [Pg ] and give it to Sinmara , then she can be induced to part with the weapon in question str.

It appears from this that the condition on which Svipdag can get into the castle where Menglad dwells is that he shall be in possession of a weapon which was smithied by an enemy of the gods, here called Loptr , and thus to be compared with Loke, who actually bears this epithet. If he does not possess this weapon, which doubtless is fraught with danger to the gods, and is the only one that can kill the gold-glittering cock of the world-tree, then the gate of the citadel is not opened to him, and the watching wolf-dogs will not let him pass through it. Before Sinmara can be induced to lend it, it is necessary to bring Vidofner dead down from the branches of the world-tree.

But to kill the cock that very weapon is needed which Sinmara cannot otherwise be induced to part with. Meanwhile the continuation of the poem shows that what was impossible for everybody else has already been accomplished by Svipdag. That he or they who robbed him of it must have been closely related to Nat and the night dises, for the sword was thereafter in the keeping of the night-being Sinmara ;. That she regarded it as exceedingly precious, and also dangerous if it came into improper hands, since she keeps it in a "tough iron chest" beneath nine magical locks;.

That the eleven guards that dwell in the same castle with Menglad regard it as of the greatest importance to get the sword within their castle wall;. That it has qualities like no other weapon in the world: this sword, and it alone, can kill the golden cock on the world-tree—a quality which seems to indicate that it threatens the existence of the world and the gods.

It is evident that the artist who made this incomparable and terrible weapon was one of the most celebrated smiths in mythology. The poem does not name him by any of his names, but calls him by the Loke-epithet Loptr , "the airy.

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After he in his sleep had been made prisoner by Mimer- Nidadr and his Njarians see No. He was also able to secure his liberty again in spite of all precautions. According to the Norse version of the Volund saga, one of the precautions resorted to is to sever the sinews of his knees str. It is Nidadr's queen who causes this cruel treatment. The name is composed of sin , which [Pg ] means "sinew," and mara , which means "the one that maims. Thus Sinmara means "the one who maims by doing violence to the sinews. Mimer- Nidadr , who imprisons Volund and robs him of his sword and the incomparable arm-ring, is the father of Nat and her sisters see No.

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He who robs "the airy one" of his treasures must also have been intimately related to the dises of night, else he would not have selected as keeper of the weapon Sinmara, whose quality as a being of night is manifested by the meaning incubus nocturnes which is the name Mara acquired. She is also called Eir aurglasis str. Bugge Edda, p. In Volundarkvida the daughter of Mimer- Nidadr receives Volund's incomparable arm-ring to wear. The meaning of this expression has already been discussed in No.

Saxo Grammaticus

The smith has his abode in the frost-cold and foggy Nifelheim, while he is at work on the sword. In its vicinity below the southern slope of the Hvergelmer mountain Nat has her hall Nos. In Volundarkvida Mimer- Nidadr suddenly appears with his wife and daughter and armed Njarians in the remote cold Wolfdales, where Volund thinks himself secure, and no one knows whence these foes of his come. The explanation is that the "Wolfdales" of the heroic saga were in the mythology situated in Nifelheim, the border-land of Mimer's realm. Thus we can also understand why Svipdag must traverse Nifelheim, "meet Nat on Nifelway," visit the world-mill, wade across Hel-rivers, and encounter Mimer himself, "the weapon-honoured.

The heroic saga about Volund is therefore identical with the myth concerning the maker of the sword which opens Asgard for Svipdag. The former, produced in Christian times, is only a new version of the latter.

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Volund is a foe of the gods, an elf-prince who was deeply insulted by beings more powerful than himself No. No other weapon can here be meant than one which was fraught with the greatest danger to the safety of the gods, and which filled them with anxiety; and unless we wish to deny that there is sense and connection in the poem, this sword can be no other than that which Svipdag now has with him, and which, having been brought to Asgard, relieves the gods of their anxiety.

And to repeat the points of similarity, Volund, like "Loptr," makes his weapon in the northern border-land of Mimer's domain; and when the sword is finished he is surprised by subterranean powers. In Loptr's saga, [Pg ] as in Volund's, a magnificent arm-ring is mentioned, and in both a dis of night received this ring to wear.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings

In Loptr's saga, as in Volund's, a night-dis is mentioned who injures sinews. And Volund himself calls himself Byrr , "the wind," which is a synonym of Loptr. Thus Svipdag has made a journey to the lower world to get possession of the sword of Volund, and he has been successful. Menglad then hastens to meet him, but before she shows what she feels for him, he must confirm with his own name and that of his father's that he really is the one he pretends to be—the one she has long been longing for. Of Orvandel, we know from the Younger Edda that he and Groa had at least for a time been good friends of Thor; that on one of his expeditions in Jotunheim, north of the Elivagar rivers, the latter had met Orvandel and had carried him in his provision-basket across the water to his home; that Orvandel there froze his toe; that Thor broke this off, and, in honour of Orvandel, threw it up into the heavens, where it became that star which is called Orvandel's toe.

Of ancient Teutonic star-names but very few have been handed down to our time, and it is natural that those now extant must be those of constellations or separate stars, which attracted attention on account of their appearance, or particularly on account of the strength of their light.

One of them was "Orvandel's toe. After being converted to Christianity they regarded the Earendel star as a symbol of Christ. The Church had already sanctified such a view by applying to Christ the second epistle of Peter i. But it would be a too hasty conclusion to assume that Orvandel's star and the morning star were identical in [Pg ] heathen times. All that we can assert with certainty is that the former must have been one of the brightest, for the very name Earendel gradually became in the Old English an abstract word meaning "splendour.

Codex Exoniensis has preserved a hymn to Christ, the introductory stanzas of which appear to be borrowed from the memory of the heathen hymn to Orvandel, and to have been adapted to Christ with a slight change:. O Orvandel, brightest shining of angels, thou who over Midgard art sent to men, thou true beam of the sun shining above the lights of heaven, thou who always of thyself givest light. We there find an apparent interpretation of the epithet in the phrases adapted to Earendel, "brightest beorhtast of angels" and "true beam of the sun.

She also wishes to know something about his past life that may confirm that he is Svipdag. When Svipdag had given as a jartegn his own name and an epithet of his father, he makes only a brief statement in regard to his past life, but to Menglad it is an entirely sufficient proof of his identity with her intended husband.

He says that the winds drove him on cold paths from his father's house to frosty regions of the world str. That word used by him, "drove" reka , implies that he did not spontaneously leave his home, a fact which we also learn in Grogalder.